These devices consist of a proximal housing, a fl exible insertion tube, and an “umbilical cord” connecting the light source and the proximal housing. The proximal housing, which is designed to be held in one hand, typically includes the eyepiece (fi beroptic models only), controls for distal tip (bending section) angulation and suction, and the working channel port. Colonoscopes have several hollow channels for suction, water and air delivery, and insertion of accessory instruments and cannulae. The distal tip of video colonoscopes includes a charge-coupled device (CCD) that serves as a small camera and electronically transmits the image from the CCD to an external video-processing unit.
Colonoscopes are used for the removal of foreign bodies, excision of tumors or colorectal polyps (polypectomy), and control of hemorrhage.
Routine colonoscopy is important in diagnosing intestinal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.
These endoscopic procedures reduce the need for invasive surgical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
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